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About Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a slow-growing germ most often in the lungs. TB is not gone and we have this disease in BC.

There is good news! People with TB can be treated.

About TB

TB tree lungs.jpg

What is TB?

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a slow-growing bacterium (germ) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB usually lives in the lungs, but can be in any body part-only some people who get TB become sick. 

There are two different types of TB: 

  1. TB infection
  2. TB disease

Want to learn more? 

Read the HealthLinkBC file on TB in English, Chinese, Farsi, French, Korean, Punjabi, Spanish and Vietnamese. Watch the What is TB? video.

How TB Spreads

TB is usually spread through the air from one person to another.  For this to happen, a person must have active TB in their lungs that gets into the air, through coughing, sneezing, laughing or singing.  Once TB is in the air another person can breathe it into their lungs.

When TB is in someone's lungs, it can begin to grow. It can also move through the blood to other parts of the body. TB is usually only spread to others when it's in the lungs.

Types of TB

 TB infection

When someone breathes in the TB bacteria, their body usually starts fighting the bacteria and wins. The bacteria is still there in these people, but it doesn't make them sick. With TB Infection, a person does not have symptoms and cannot spread TB to anyone else. The main problem with TB Infection is that it can become TB Disease at any time.  

Handout:  TB Infection

English  Chinese  French  Korean  Punjabi  Spanish  Tagalog  Vietnamese 

TB disease

If someone has TB bacteria in their body and their body can’t fight it, then it becomes TB Disease. This can happen right after breathing in the TB bacteria or years later. Once a person has TB Disease they become sick and can spread TB to others. TB disease can be deadly, but it can be treated and cured. 

TB Disease usually lives in people’s lungs (pulmonary TB), but it can live anywhere in the body (extra pulmonary TB).  It can also live in more than one place at a time (disseminated TB).

Handout: Pulmonary TB 

Handout: Extra pulmonary TB

English  Chinese  French  Japanese  

Korean  Punjabi  Spanish  Tagalog  Vietnamese 

Signs & Symptoms


Signs and symptoms of active TB depend on where in the body TB is located. They can begin gradually and worsen over time. Common signs and symptoms include: 

  • fevers, chills and night sweats
  • not hungry (loss of appetite) and unexplained weight loss
  • weakness or feeling very tired

Pulmonary TB

Most often, TB will live in the lungs. Common signs and symptoms include:

  • A new or worse cough lasting longer than three weeks
  • Coughing up mucus (sputum), sometimes with blood
  • Trouble breathing and chest pain

Extra pulmonary TB

If TB lives outside of the lungs, the signs and symptoms will depend on its location. Some examples include:

  • Glands: lumps in the neck
  • Bones: pain in the bones or back
  • Joints: pain, redness, swelling
  • Kidney: painful peeing (urination), cloudy pee (urine)
  • Brain: headaches, stiff neck, hurts to move head or eyes.
  • Heart: hard to catch your breath, chest pain
  • Intestines: stomach pain and change in poop (stool, feces)

TB Infection to TB Disease


Most people with TB Infection will never develop TB Disease. Some people have a higher chance of developing TB Disease, especially those with a weakened immune system. Some examples include:

  • People who have developed latent TB in the past two years
  • Babies, young children, and the elderly
  • People with chronic health conditions such as HIV infection, cancer, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes
  • People who take medications that weaken their immune system
  • People who have taken medicines for TB in the past, but it wasn't done right. Examples are not getting the right medications or not taking the pills for long enough.

Some people with TB Disease can spread it to others and need to stay home. Home isolation means staying at home and avoiding contact with others. Read the HealthLinkBC file on home isolation for TB in English, Chinese, Farsi, French, Korean, Punjabi, Spanish and Vietnamese. 

TB in BC

Many people living in BC have never heard of TB. Others have heard of it but think it doesn't exist here. BC has about 250 - 300 new diagnoses of TB disease each year. Most people with TB Disease were born outside Canada, but anyone can get it. We publish annual reports about TB in BC. 

Want to learn more? Read our TB Reports and watch the How common is TB? video.

Get Tested

iStock-496579044.jpgGet Tested

When to test

There are a wide variety of reasons why you may need to have TB screening. Visit your health care provider for a check-up if you have symptoms of TB disease or want to know if you have latent TB infection. Your health care provider will ask health questions and order any needed tests. 

Reasons for TB screening:

  • you have signs or symptoms of active TB
  • you were in contact with someone who has TB in their lungs that can spread from person to person
  • you work or volunteer in health care
  • you have health conditions such as HIV infection, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes
  • you have a low or weakened immune system from immunosuppressive medications
  • you are living in a communal setting such as a shelter, corrections, or a treatment program

What to expect with TB Screening

  • There are different types of tests that look for TB. 
  • The type of test is chosen based on your health history and sometimes a body (physical) exam.
  • For most people TB screening is free, but it depends on the reason for and type of TB test(s).

TB skin test

Where to get a TB skin test

  • The BCCDC TB clinics cannot offer TB screening for work, school or volunteering.
  • Please do not contact our clinics to schedule TB Screening for work, school or volunteering.
  • Contact your local health unit and ask where TB skin testing is offered your area. Depending on where you live in BC, Travel clinics, some pharmacies and doctor's offices provide TB skin tests.
  • For many people, TB skin tests are free, but it depends on the reason for the test. 
  • There is often a charge (cost) for TB skin tests for work, school, or volunteering.

What is a TB skin test?

The tuberculin skin test shows whether or not you have the TB bacteria in your body. It is the most common test used for TB. The test cannot tell the difference between latent or active TB. This a two part test with two appointments 48 to 72 hours apart. 

First Visit

A health care provider will inject a small amount of fluid (called tuberculin) into the lower part of your arm. 

Second Visit 

At the second appointment, a health care provider will read your body's reaction to the fluid on the lower part of your arm.

  • negative TB skin test usually means that you do not have TB in your body. Most people do not need further testing. 
  • positive TB skin test means you might have TB in your body. Before a diagnosis can be made, more testing is needed. 

Want to learn more? 

Read the TB Skin test HealthLinkBC file in English, Chinese, Farsi, French, Korean, Punjabi, Spanish and Vietnamese. 

TB blood test (IGRA)

A TB skin test is used to test for TB infection. In some cases, an IGRA TB blood test may offer more information. The test cannot tell the difference between latent or active TB. You may be offered an IGRA TB blood test if you are at risk of developing active TB disease. Your doctor or nurse will decide if you need this test. 

  • negative TB blood test usually means that you do not have TB in your body. Most people do not need further testing.
  • positive TB blood test means you might have TB in your body. Before a diagnosis can be made, more testing is needed. 

Handout: TB Blood Test (IGRA)

English  Chinese  French  Korean Punjabi

Spanish  Tagalog  Vietnamese 

Chest x-ray

A chest x-ray may be offered to some people. A chest x-ray is a picture of your lungs. It is often used after you have had a positive TB skin or blood test to see if TB has affected your lungs. If there are changes it's more likely you may have active TB disease.

Xray exhale image from tb germ video.jpg

Sputum test

Sputum tests may be offered to some people. Sputum tests look at the mucus from your lungs. It can help figure out if you have active TB disease and how likely you are to pass TB another person. Watch our How to get a good sputum sample to get a good sputum sample for your tb test.PNG

Learn more by reading the HealthlinkBC file: Sputum collection for TB testing. The healthfile is in English, Chinese, Farsi, French, Korean, Punjabi, Spanish and Vietnamese. 

Getting results

The way you get your TB test results will depend on the type of test that you had. If you had a TB skin test your health care provider will explain results are the second appointment and let you know if you require more testing. For other types of TB tests, the results may take several weeks. When you get tested ask your health care provider how you will get your results and when they will be ready. It is important to follow-up on your results.


Any information shared with your health care provider is confidential, including test results. When you go for TB testing you may be asked to provide personal information. This is used to give the best health care, order tests, and contact you with results. If you are concerned about confidentiality talk to your health care provider.

Care & Medications

TB Care

Just Diagnosed

If you have just found out that you have active or latent TB, you may be overwhelmed and have many questions. It's important to know that it's not your fault and you're not alone. TB is treatable, and your health care provider will help figure out the best care and support for you. 


Connect | Share | Support

A supportive community for people affected by TB in Canada. 
You are not alone! 

TBpeople Canada is a supportive community of and for people living with TB, TB survivors, family members, friends and caregivers committed to the common goal of raising awareness on TB, fighting stigma and ending TB everywhere. 

As Canada's first peer support network for people affected by TB, this is a safe space for members to come together and share stories, experiences, and resources to foster feelings of togetherness and solidarity. 

TB Treatment

TB is treatable and most often curable with medications; however, TB germs have a waxy coat and can be very difficult to kill. A health care provider will help you decide what treatment is best for you.

Active TB Disease

  • This disease needs a combination of medications to be cured. 
  • The medications must be taken for at least six. It is important to take all your medications and finish the entire course of treatment. 
  • You will be followed and supported by health care providers throughout your treatment.

Latent TB Infection

  • The medications can prevent TB from becoming active and you may never get sick
  • Deciding whether you want to treat latent TB infection is your choice, and a health care provider will help you make decisions related to your care.
  • Treatment usually only requires one medication. However, because the TB germs are difficult to kill, this medication needs to be taken for about 4-9 months. 

Health care providers will support and monitor you throughout your treatment. TB medications are generally safe. Follow the directions when taking TB medications, and talk to your health care provider about any side effects. Learn more about TB and NTM medications by reading our handouts and discussing any questions with your health care provider.

TB Medication Handouts

Available in 8 languages:

English | Chinese 中文 | French, Français 

Korean 한국어 | Punjabi ਪੰਜਾਬੀ | Spanish, Español Tagalog | Vietnamese, Việt



Clofazimine Medication Sheet 

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Ethambutol Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Ethionamide Medication Sheet

English | Chinese | French | Korean | Punjabi | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Isoniazid Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Levofloxacin Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Linezolid Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Moxifloxacin Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

PASER Medication Sheet

(p-aminosalicyclic acid granules)

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese 

Pyrazinamide Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Pyridoxine Medication Sheet

(Vitamin B6)

English | French | Korean | Punjabi |  Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Rifabutin Medication Sheet

English | Chinese | French | Korean | Punjabi | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Rifampin Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Rifapentine and Isoniazid (3HP) Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

Rifapentine & Nitrosamine handout

Streptomycin Medication Sheet

English | French | Korean | Punjabi | Chinese | Spanish

Tagalog | Vietnamese

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SOURCE: About Tuberculosis ( )
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