Clinical illness with laboratory confirmation of infection
- isolation of Bacillus anthracis from an appropriate clinical specimen OR
- demonstration of B. anthracis in a clinical specimen by immunofluorescence
Clinical illness presents in various forms:
- Cutaneous: Clinical illness is characterized by the appearance of small, painless but often pruritic papules. As the papule enlarges, it becomes vesicular and, within two days, ulcerates to form a distinctive black eschar, with surrounding edema.
- Inhalation: Clinical illness is characterized by an upper-respiratory ‘flu-like syndrome that, after a few days, takes a fulminant course, manifested by dyspnea, cough, chills and a high-grade bacteremia.
- Gastrointestinal: Clinical illness is characterized by abdominal pain, fever and signs of septicaemia.
Suspected case with detection of B. anthracis DNA
Clinical illness in a person who is epidemiologically linked to a confirmed or suspected animal case or contaminated animal product