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​Case definition

Confirmed case

Clinical illness with laboratory confirmation of infection

  • isolation of Bacillus anthracis from an appropriate clinical specimen OR 
  • demonstration of B. anthracis in a clinical specimen by immunofluorescence

Clinical illness presents in various forms:

  • Cutaneous: Clinical illness is characterized by the appearance of small, painless but often pruritic papules. As the papule enlarges, it becomes vesicular and, within two days, ulcerates to form a distinctive black eschar, with surrounding edema.
  • Inhalation: Clinical illness is characterized by an upper-respiratory ‘flu-like syndrome that, after a few days, takes a fulminant course, manifested by dyspnea, cough, chills and a high-grade bacteremia.
  • Gastrointestinal: Clinical illness is characterized by abdominal pain, fever and signs of septicaemia.

Probable case

Suspected case with detection of B. anthracis DNA

Suspect case

Clinical illness in a person who is epidemiologically linked to a confirmed or suspected animal case or contaminated animal product

SOURCE: Anthrax ( )
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