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Pediatrics

Information on COVID-19 in children, infection prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment options.
Last updated: September 20, 2021

Vaccines

Testing and Infection Control

Clinical Management Guidelines 

MIS-C continues to be a rare complication of COVID-19 in children.
  • It can occur in children who have had asymptomatic or symptomatic COVID-19 infection.
Children affected by MIS-C can present with a spectrum of symptoms.
  • Prominent features include shock/hemodynamic instability, rash, mucocutaneous inflammation, peripheral extremity changes, gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiac dysfunction.
  • Respiratory symptoms can occur but are less frequent.
Common laboratory features associated with MIS-C include:
  • Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated inflammatory markers, evidence of coagulopathy and elevated cardiac markers.
MIS-C symptoms overlap with a broad range of conditions.
  • It is important to consider other diagnoses with similar presentation to MIS-C including:
    • Kawasaki Disease
    • Toxic Shock Syndrome
    • Sepsis
There should be a low threshold to evaluate for MIS-C in children who present with unexplained fever for three or more days, even if they are well-appearing on initial presentation.
  • Although children with MIS-C may appear well, their condition can deteriorate within hours to days.
  • Caregivers of children who appear well and are discharged should be counselled about symptoms of MIS-C and told to return to the emergency department if:
    • Symptoms worsen;
    • Symptoms do not improve within 48 hours; or
    • Fever does not abate after a total of five days since onset.
  • Clinicians should liaise with the relevant specialist at BC Children’s Hospital regarding the MIS-C patient’s management and determine whether a higher level of care is needed.
The mainstay of MISC-C treatment is:
  • Early fluid resuscitation, as needed.
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg).
  • Systemic steroids.
  • Consultation with rheumatology, infectious diseases and cardiology is suggested for children being evaluated for MIS-C.
Long-term sequalae of MIS-C is unknown at present but some children may have lingering symptoms after
discharge.

Children with possible MIS-C require evaluation by a pediatric specialty team experienced in the diagnosis of KD and other inflammatory conditions of childhood. Consultation with pediatric rheumatology and infectious disease is recommended if querying MIS-C. If cardiac imaging is needed outside of BCCH, liaise with the pediatric cardiologist at BCCH. Any of these specialists can be reached through central paging at 1-604-875-2000 or toll free 1-888-300-3088.

Cases of MIS-C are reportable under the Reporting Information Affecting Public Health Regulation and Public Health Act. Please contact your local Medical Health Officer to report cases of MIS-C. For MIS-C reporting or questions, please email MISC@cw.bc.ca


Special Populations

Mental Health

Schools

Schools are low-risk settings for COVID-19 transmission. When transmission does occur, it usually results in only one or two additional cases. There is widespread support amongst pediatricians to have children attend in-person learning, including most children with medical complexity and/or immune compromise, when safety measures are in place. 

This guidance is intended for pediatricians, primary care providers and other health-care professionals working with school-aged children and youth and their parents/caregivers

Resources for Families 

Guidance for Families of Immunocompromised Children during COVID-19 - updated Jan 20, 2021.



Information and resources about health and safety measures in K-12 schools, student and staff safety and what happens when there is a COVID-19 case in school can be found at: www.bccdc.ca/schools


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