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Do Bugs Need Drugs? Reports


Program evaluation reports

The objectives of these reports are:

To describe any changes in antibiotic utilization, and changes in indication specific prescribing in BC

To describe trends in antibiotic resistant organisms in BC

To provide analyses of the program impact on health outcomes for the citizens of BC

To provide any other relevant evaluation information, including a summary of questionnaires, or other evaluation tools used

Do Bugs Need Drugs Annual Program Report 2015 2016.pdf

Do Bugs Need Drugs Annual Program Report 2014 2015.pdf

Do Bugs Need Drugs? Annual Program Evaluation Report 2013/14

Do Bugs Need Drugs? Annual Program Evaluation Report 2012/13

Antimicrobial resistance & utilization 

Antibiotic utilization is a known driver of antibiotic resistance. A large proportion of antibiotic prescriptions are inappropriate, so efforts are needed to reduce the misuse and overuse of these important resources.


In 2000, a report from the Provincial Health Officer on "Antimicrobial Resistance: Recommended Action Plan for British Columbia" suggested that there needed to be increased awareness among the public and prescribers about

  • the risks of antimicrobial resistance 
  • the need to meet specific education and training requirements through collaboration with professional organizations.

To address some of these items, in the fall of 2005, funding was graciously provided by the Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health Services for British Columbia to adopt the Do Bugs Need Drugs? (DBND) program from the neighbouring province of Alberta. 

An important component of the annual evaluation of the DBND program is to monitor trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic utilization in BC. Each year, we compile, analyze, and interpret data on these key outcomes.

Our findings are presented in the Antimicrobial Surveillance Dashboards. These interactive tools provide measures and trends of antimicrobial utilization and resistance in BC. They have been designed to allow you to select the data you would like to view.

The 2013 Antibiotic Utilization Report and the 2014 Antibiotic Resistance Report preceded the Dashboards, and may be accessed below: 

2013 Antibiotic Utilization Report

2014 Antibiotic Resistance Report




  • F Marra, D George, M Chong, S Sutherland, DM Patrick. Antibiotic prescribing by dentists has increased. J American Dental Assoc 2016;147(5):320-327.
  • DM Patrick, C Chambers, D Purych, M Chong, D George, F Marra. Value of an aggregate index in describing the impact of trends in antimicrobial resistance for Escherichia coli. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2015;26(1):33-38.
  • AJ Wright, F Marra, M Chong, C Chambers, WR Bowie, DM Patrick. Increased moxifloxacin utilization associated with an unrestricted addition to a drug reimbursement formulary: A population-based analysis. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2014;25(1):27-31.
  • SK Glass-Kaastra, R Finley, J Hutchinson, DM Patrick, K Weiss, J Conly. Longitudinal surveillance of outpatient quinolone antimicrobial use in Canada. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2014;25(2):99-102.
  • SK Glass-Kaastra, R Finley, J Hutchinson, DM Patrick, K Weiss, J Conly. Provincial and temporal variation in macrolide and lincosamide antimicrobial use by outpatients in Canada, 1995 to 2010. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2014;25(2):103- 106.
  • SK Glass-Kaastra, R Finley, J Hutchinson, DM Patrick, K Weiss, J Conly. Variation in outpatient oral antimicrobial use patterns among Canadian provinces, 2000 to 2010. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2014;25(2):95-98.
  • McKay RM, Vrbova L, Fuertes E, Chong M, David S, Dreher K, Purych D, Blondel-Hill E, Henry B, Marra F, Kendall PRW, Patrick DM. Evaluation of the Do Bugs Need Drugs? program in British Columbia: Can we curb antibiotic prescribing? Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2011;22(1):19-24. PMID: 22379484 [PubMed]
  • Fuertes EI, Henry B, Marra F, Wong H, Patrick DM. Trends in antibiotic utilization in Vancouver associated with a community education program on antibiotic use. Can J Public Health. 2010;101(4):304-308. PMID: 21033536 [PubMed]
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